Linear Perspective in Landscape
Linear Perspective in Landscape


Hi everybody, this time our topic is the linear perspective. In perspective, all the objects seem to gradually decrease in size when the distance between them and viewer increase. And each of the sets of parallel lines coming out from the objects in the sketch appears to meet at one particular point. Speaking of linear perspective we have to
notice: this system we apply generally to the box-like objects. I mean the rectangular boxes. So we use it for drawing the rooms with furniture and, of course, the streets with buildings – city landscapes. All the boxes, surrounding us in daily life,
usually are standing onthe horizontal surfaces, horizontal planes. And how they look depends on our position, more precisely, on the level of our eyes. Level of eyes is horizontal plane too, but
we see it like a line. This line we call the line of horizon. Here are boxes on the sketch. The first box is below the eye-level, so we
see its top side. Second is over the eye-level and we see its bottom side. Third box is directly on the eye-level and
we don’t see neither its bottom side nor top. This third box is in position of a building,
seen from the street, our eye level normally is higher than base of the building. All the parallel lines are getting closer
and closer with a distance – you can remember how parallel lines of a railway track seem
to meet at a distant point. The parallel lines belonging to the horizontal plane meet at the point on the line of horizon. This point is called the vanishing or melting point. Lines meeting at the vanishing point are known as orthogonals or convergence lines. There are two mostly used perspective schemes: one-point perspective and two-point perspective. Here we are speaking about the number of melting points. In one-point perspective scheme our line of sight is directed in parallel with lines of depth of our boxes. Here is the top view, we are outside of the
viewpoint in the scheme. And, when we are looking from viewpoint, we see line of sight like a point on the horizon line. It is the melting point, all the rest of lines
of depth meet at this point. Vertical lines in one-point perspective scheme are vertical and horizontal lines are horizontal. It is very convenient scheme because here is only one melting point and it is placed inside of the sketch. But this type of the linear perspective has its flaw. It looks sometimes not very realistic and
the streets are not always organized like a chessboard. One point perspective we use when we are drawing objects facing us. In two-point perspective scheme our line of sight is directed diagonally relatively to the bases of our boxes. And we have two melting points: one from the left, another from the right, each one for one set of the parallel lines. Only lines of the vertical set are vertical. This type of the linear perspective is more
realistic, but it has its flaw too. Usually both melting points are far away outside of our sketchpage. There are more than two types of perspective schemes. But for beginning one-point perspective and two-point perspective give us enough freedom in sketching to achieve a good result in a big variety of landscapes. And, knowing these schemes, on location, we can choose the correct position to draw the sketch. Before sketching we can draw a small schematic sketch to put the horizon line and all the melting points in proper place and take a look how all the perspective works in our sketch. Now you can try to build up couple of small sketches with boxes using two types of perspective schemes: one-point perspective and two-point perspective. It makes the theory less abstract and more usable. In the next videos I’m going to build up examples of landscapes based on one-point and two-point perspective schemes. And, of course, I’ll show you some of my tricks and hints for avoiding unnecessary work and trouble. See you later, bye-bye!

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